The educational goal
Part 2 of a series.
Anyone setting out to design a video game to help students learn mathematics should start out by reading – several times, from cover to cover – the current “bible” on K-12 mathematics education. It is called Adding it Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics, and was published by the National Academies Press in 2001. The result of several years work by the National Research Council’s Mathematics Learning Study Committee, a blue-ribbon panel of experts assembled to carry out that crucial millennial task, this invaluable volume sets out to codify the mathematical knowledge and skills that are thought to be important in today’s society. As such, it provides the best single source currently available for guidelines on good mathematics instruction.
The report’s authors use the phrase mathematical proficiency to refer to the aggregate of mathematical knowledge, skills, developed abilities, habits of mind, and attitudes that are essential ingredients for life in the twenty-first century. They then break this aggregate down to what they describe as “five tightly interwoven” threads:
Conceptual understanding – the comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations
Procedural fluency – skill in carrying out arithmetical procedures accurately, efficiently, flexibly, and appropriately
Strategic competence – the ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems arising in real-world situations
Adaptive reasoning – the capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification
Productive disposition – a habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, combined with a confidence in one’s own ability to master the material.
The authors stress that it is important not to view these five goals as a checklist to be dealt with one by one. Rather, they are different aspects of what should be an integrated whole. On page 116 of the report, they say [emphasis in the original, image reproduced with permission]:
The most important observation we make here, one stressed throughout this report, is that the five strands are interwoven and interdependent in the development of proficiency in mathematics. Mathematical proficiency is not a one-dimensional trait, and it cannot be achieved by focusing on just one or two of these strands. … [W]e argue that helping children acquire mathematical proficiency calls for instructional programs that address all its strands. As they go from pre-kindergarten to eighth grade, all students should become increasingly proficient in mathematics.
In my book, I describe in some detail how to incorporate these educational goals (actually, to be faithful to the NRC Committee’s recommendation, I should say “educational goal”, in the singular) into good game design for a video game that seeks to help children learn mathematics. In this post, I’ll simply distill from that discussion eight important things to avoid. Try using this list to evaluate any math ed video game on the market. Very few – and I mean VERY few – pass through this filter.
- AVOID: Confusing mathematics (a way of thinking) with its (symbolic) representation on a static, flat surface. (cf. music and music notation.)
- AVOID: Presenting the mathematical activities as separate from the game action and game mechanics.
- AVOID: Relegating the mathematics to a secondary activity when it should be the main focus.
- AVOID: Reinforcing the perception that math is an obstacle that gets in the way of doing more enjoyable things.
- AVOID: Reinforcing the perception that math is an arbitrary hurdle to be overcome, or circumvented, in order to progress .
- AVOID: Encouraging the student to try to answer quickly, without reflection.
- AVOID: Reinforcing the belief that math is just a large bag of isolated facts and tricks.
- AVOID: Reinforcing the perception that math is so intrinsically uninteresting it has to be sugar coated.
I’ll be referring to Adding It Up a lot in this series. I shall also discuss many things TO DO when designing a good video game that support good learning, not just what to avoid. As you might (and for sure should) realize, with two challenging goals, good game and good learning, designing a successful math ed video game is difficult. Very difficult. If you do not have an experienced and knowledgable mathematics education specialist on your team, you are not going to succeed. Period.
Game programmers who think that because they were good at basic math (and they have to have been to become successful programmers) they can design a video game that will provide good learning are deluding themselves.
It’s easy to underestimate the depth of expertise of professionals in areas other than our own. Let me stress this point from the perspective of a hypothetical math educator who knows how to program in html5 and decides to create the next Angry Birds.
S/he might well think, “I can write code that produces screen action like that.” Indeed s/he probably can; it’s not hard. But as any experienced game developer will attest, the coding is the easiest part. The huge success of Angry Birds is not an accident. It is a result of brilliant design on many levels. (See this article for an initial, eye-opening summary of some of what went in to making that success.) The expertise it took to be able to create that game was acquired over many years. The Helsinki, Finland based Rovio game studio built ten other games, picking up a ton of increased expertise and insights along the way, before they reached the design heights of Angry Birds.
To build a successful game, you have to understand, at a deep level, what constitutes a game, how and why people play games, what keeps them engaged, and how they interact with the different platforms on which the game will be played. That is a lot of deep knowledge. On its own, being able to code is not enough.
To build a game that supports good mathematics learning, requires a whole lot more. You have to understand, at a deep level, what mathematics is, how and why people learn and do mathematics, how to get and keep them engaged in their learning, and how to represent the mathematics on the different platforms on which the game will be played. That too is a lot of deep knowledge. On its own, being “good at math”, or at least the relevant math, is not enough.
If you are a game developer who happens to have both kinds of expertise, then go ahead and build a game on your own. But I have yet to meet such a person. For the rest of us, the answer is clear. You need a team, and that team must have all the expertise you will require to do a good job. If that team does not include, in particular, an experienced, knowledgable, math education specialist, then you are not a good engineer. You are an amateur.